14:23 – Jeroboam II – son of Jehoash (or Joash). He reigned for 41 years (793-753 BC) over Israel though approximately 11 years were spent as co-regent with his father Jehoash) and did evil in the LORD’s sight (14:24) by continuing in the sin of Jeroboam son of Nebat.
14:25 – Jonah son of Amittai of Gath-Hepher (see Jonah 1:1) prophesies by the word of the LORD and Jeroboam II is therefore able to retake the boundary promised in Numbers – Lebo Hamath to the Arabah (Num.34:7-8 ; though see where the judgment comes from according to Amos 6:14). Why does the LORD care to bless Israel? (see 2 Kings 14:26-27)
14:26 – What was it that Israel “was suffering” so “bitterly” from? The problem appears to be not so much concerned with those outside of Israel as her antagonists, but those within Israel. Paul House (NAC pgs. 326-327) lists Israel as full of spiritual adulterers (Hos. 1:2; 4:1), thieves (Hos. 4:2), ungrateful children (Hos. 11:1-7), those who offer sacrifices instead of mercy (Hos. 6:6), those who worship idols instead of the LORD alone (Hos. 13:4), the oppression of the poor (Amos 2:6), injustice (Amos 2:7), immorality (Amos 2:7-8), love of wealth more than kindness (Amos 4:1-3), easy living more than righteous character (6:1-7). (For Judah’s sins and judgment see Isaiah 1-6)
15:1 – Azariah (also called Uzziah – see Isaiah 1:1; 6:1; Amos 1:1; 2 Chron. 26-27) – son of Amaziah. He reigned for 52 years (792-740 BC) over Judah and did what was right in the LORD’s sight, but he never removed the high places or stopped the people from making sacrifices there (15:4). He led Judah to victory by raising a great military and defeating the Philistines and the Ammonites and he rebuilt the wall of Jerusalem that had been torn down as well as building up several cities and towers (2 Chron. 26:6-15). After these great deeds he sinned against the LORD by entering the Temple and in his arrogance he offered incense. Thus the LORD gave him leprosy for the remainder of his reign and he was forced to share his throne since he had to live outside of the normal kingly precinct (15:5; the details are given in 2 Chron. 26:16-20).
15:8 – Zechariah – son of Jeroboam II. He reigned for 6 months (753-752 BC) over Israel and did evil in the LORD’s sight continuing in the sin of Jeroboam (15:9). He was assassinated by Shallum (15:13) and thus the word of the LORD was fulfilled concerning Jehu’s lineage on the throne lasting only four generations (10:30; 15:12).
15:13 – Shallum – son of Jabesh (probably a reference to the city of Jabesh Gilead – see Konkel NIVAC 549). He reigned for 1 month (752 BC) over Israel and was assassinated by Menahem. He doesn’t even receive recognition for being evil or right in the LORD’s sight.
15:17 – Menahem – son of Gadi (probably a reference to his being from the tribe of Gad – see Konkel NIVAC 549). He reigned for 10 years (752-742 BC) over Israel (though it may be assumed that he ruled only part of Israel and was competing with Pekah for kingship of Israel – see dates below) and did evil in the LORD’s sight continuing in the sin of Jeroboam (15:18). He is ignominiously is noted to have been the only Israelite king who “ripped open all the pregnant women” of a conquered city (Tiphsah by the Euphrates – MT; or more likely Tappuah about 10 miles from Tirzah – Old Greek), which was actually a city of Israel in apparent rebellion against him (15:16 – see the judgment of the Amonnites for doing the same in Amos 1:13). He also buys off an alliance (and retreat?) with Tiglath-Pileser III (called “Pul” in honor of conquering Babylon in 729 BC) of Assyria. He taxed the “mighty men” of Israel to raise the funds to buy off Assyria (15:19-20).
15:23 – Pekahiah – son of Menahem. He reigned for 2 years (742-740 BC) over Israel and did evil in the LORD’s sight continuing in the sin of Jeroboam. He was assassinated by Pekah and (other?) Gileadites (15:25).
15:25 – Pekah – son of Remaliah. He reigned for 20 years (752-732 BC) over Israel and did evil in the LORD’s sight continuing in the sin of Jeroboam (15:28). He allied with Rezin king of Aram/Syria against Tiglath Pileser III of Assyria and tried to ‘pursuade’ Jotham king of Judah according to the will of the LORD (15:37). He was assassinated by Hoshea after losing in battle to Assyria where many in Israel were carried away into captivity (15:29-30; by the word of the LORD prophesied to Amaziah – Amos 7:17).
15:32 – Jotham – son of Uzziah (or Azariah). He reigned for 16 years (750-734 BC) over Judah and did what was right in the LORD’s sight, but… (15:37; contrast the positive view in 2 Chron. 27:6). He defeated the Ammonites and exacted great wealth from them (2 Chron.27:5). He built up one of the gates of the Temple as well as the wall of Ophel and several cities and forts and towers (15:35; 2 Chron. 17:3-4). He became mighty because he sought the LORD (2 Chron. 27:6).
Prophetic Messages delivered at this time: ISRAEL – Jonah, Amos and Hosea; JUDAH – Isaiah and Micah.